Thursday, 18 October 2012

R&D tingkat mutu, kualiti universiti


Universiti di Malaysia gagal menempatkan diri dalam kelompok 200 universiti terbaik dunia bagi sesi 2012/2013 seperti yang dikeluarkan majalah Times Higher Education (THE), baru-baru ini.

Meskipun ada dalam kalangan tokoh akademik yang berpendapat senarai kedudukan universiti dunia berkenaan tidak mencerminkan mutu sebenar universiti tempatan atau boleh dijadikan penanda aras kerana ada unsur 'pilih kasih' daripada pihak tertentu yang berkepentingan, kegagalan universiti Malaysia itu harus dijadikan sempadan memandangkan beberapa universiti Asia semakin kukuh dalam senarai itu.

Universiti terbaik Asia, Universiti of Tokyo yang berada pada kedudukan ke-30 bagi sesi lalu, umpamanya naik kepada kedudukan ke-27, manakala institusi pengajian tinggi (IPT) di negara jiran, National University of Singapore (NUS) melonjak ke tangga ke-29 daripada kedudukan ke-40 sesi lalu.

Malah, Nanyang Technological University Singapore yang ditubuhkan pada 1981 kini berada pada tangga ke- 86 berbanding 169 tahun lalu. Peningkatan ketara Secara keseluruhan senarai 400 universiti terbaik dunia THE menunjukkan peningkatan ketara kebanyaikan universiti di Asia khususnya China, Korea Selatan dan Taiwan, tetapi sebaliknya Jepun yang mempunyai jumlah universiti paling banyak dalam senarai itu perlu berwaspada apabila kebanyakannya turun daripada kedudukan sesi lalu, melainkan Universiti of Tokyo.


Peningkatan mendadak IPT di rantau ini mungkin menimbulkan kebimbangan Barat khususnya Amerika Syarikat (AS) meskipun senarai 10 universiti terbaik THE itu masih lagi dimonopoli negara Barat iaitu tujuh universiti AS dan tiga universiti di United Kingdom (UK).

Pengarang THE, Phil Baty, turut mengakui hakikat berkenaan. Beliau berpendapat peningkatan universiti Asia dalam kedudukan universiti terbaik dunia itu menggambarkan kebangkitan tahap pendidikan di rantau ini khususnya dengan pelaburan tinggi yang diperuntukkan kebanyakan negara di Timur untuk tujuan pendidikan.

China, misalnya yang memberi tumpuan khusus dalam pembangunan universiti bertaraf dunia dengan menyediakan pelaburan besar sudah membuktikan komitmennya apabila berjaya mencapai matlamat berkenaan. Dua universiti utama China, Peking University dan Tsinghua Universiti berada dalam kelompok 60 universiti terbaik dunia.

Pada 2010, dana untuk penyelidikan bagi universiti di China mencecah RM36 bilion mengatasi UK yang memperuntukkan dana sebanyak RM33 bilion bagi tujuan penyelidikan dan inovasi di IPT. Difahamkan peruntukan dana penyelidikan khusus untuk IPT di China meningkat 15 peratus setiap tahun, membuktikan kesungguhan negara itu dalam memacu ekonominya berasaskan inovasi. Sedia peruntukan besar Singapura, Korea Selatan, Hong Kong dan Taiwan turut menyediakan peruntukan besar khususnya bagi meningkatkan penyelidikan dan pembangunan (R&D) berimpak tinggi yang menjadi antara syarat bagi berada dalam senarai berkenaan.

Beberapa negara lain seperti Australia dan Brazil juga kini memberi tumpuan khusus kepada pelaburan untuk R&D berimpak tinggi dengan menyediakan peruntukkan berbilion ringgit. Brazil pada tahun lalu mengumumkan dana penyelidikan bernilai RM39 bilion bagi institusi akademiknya menjalankan pelbagai R&D.

Dalam hubungan ini, peruntukan sebanyak RM600 juta untuk lima universiti penyelidikan (RU) di Malaysia seperti yang diumumkan pada pembentangan Bajet 2013, Jumaat lalu mungkin dilihat begitu kecil nilainya.

Bagaimanapun, daripada satu sudut, jumlah berkenaan mungkin memadai memandangkan ia diperuntukkan hanya untuk lima IPT berbanding peruntukan RM36 bilion di China yang dibahagikan untuk 200 IPT di negara berkenaan.

Seperti negara maju lain, Malaysia kini juga sedang memacu ekonomi berasaskan inovasi dan peruntukan berkenaan diharap dapat membantu negara mencapai matlamat terbabit. Peranan sektor korporat Begitu pun, matlamat untuk meningkatkan inovasi menerusi IPT tidak boleh dibebankan kepada kerajaan semata-mata, sebaliknya pihak korporat boleh berganding bahu menyumbang dalam pembangunan R&D menerusi hubungan industri dengan menyediakan penajaan universiti pilihan.

Pada masa sama, setiap universiti di negara ini wajar mengambil peluang diberikan dengan memanfaatkan peruntukan berkenaan untuk menghasilkan R&D yang bertaraf an tarabangsa, sekali gus dapat meningkatkan taraf universiti tempatan supaya lebih dikenali dan dihormati di mata dunia.

Penyenaraian universiti dalam kelompok universiti terbaik dunia tidak hanya bersandarkan kepada jumlah R&D berimpak tinggi, sebaliknya pelbagai perkara lain turut dipertimbangkan termasuk jumlah akademia yang berijazah Doktor Falsafah (PhD) dan berkepakaran tinggi pelbagai bidang serta penawaran kursus kritikal.

Hakikatnya, Malaysia menerusi Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi sudah melaksana dan memperkenalkan pelbagai langkah untuk memastikan kecemerlangan pendidikan tinggi yang dapat membantu universiti tempatan setanding universiti terbaik dunia.

Kim terpulang kepada semua warga kampus, sama ada kakitangan akademia mahupun bukan akademia serta mahasiswa untuk menggembleng tenaga membawa universiti masingmasing ke matlamat yang ditetapkan.

Sumber: Berita Harian, M/S: 39
Tarikh: Sabtu, 6 Oktober 2012

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